This course will examine the military history of the ancient Mediterranean world, focusing in particular on the role of warfare in Greek and Roman society. We will discuss the ideologies of the civilizations constructed around combat and military service; examining "ideal soldiers" from the warrior-kings of Homer's Iliad to the professional legionaries of imperial Rome. We will consider how war and combat served to unify and divide Greek and Roman society. Finally, we will ask why some societies in the ancient Mediterranean (such as Athens, Sparta, Macedon, and Rome) were so successful in using warfare to build imperial states, while others (including Persia, Carthage, and the Celts) failed to do so.The course will center on reading a discussing ancient texts (in translation), supplemented by modern scholarship and film adaptations of ancient warfare. No previous experience is required. Lecture (plus questions). Facilitated Discussion.