Warning is often described as the primary intelligence function. Indeed, it is sometimes claimed that the warning mission is what led to the development of most intelligence organizations. Many scholars, for example, assert that Pearl Harbor led to the National Security Act of 1947 and the creation of our first truly national intelligence agency. Ironically, despite the clear significance of this function, many critics note the number of warning failures throughout history, from the Trojan Horse to 9/11. In our course we will examine the warning mission, identify the inherent complications, and place the topic in a broad historical context. Lecture (plus questions).