This course, taught entirely in French, covers World War II, the Vichy regime, the Resistance and collaboration, and the birth and fall of the Fourth Republic. The horror of the Holocaust, massive casualties, deportations, and the devastation caused by the atomic bomb shook the world, bringing anguish about the human condition and God, and questioning the duration of civilizations. The French Indochina War and the Algerian War divided France on whether to grant independence to the colonies. Authors such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Samuel Beckett, and Jean Anouilh, to name a few, searched for answers in their work, whether it be Theatre de l’Absurde, Litterature engagee, or Existentialisme. Simone de Beauvoir, Marguerite Duras, and Nathalie Sarraute contributed with their ideas and writing styles. French composers, cinematographers, and painters such as Bernard Buffet, Yves Klein, and the architect and urbanist Le Corbusier created new ways to portray society’s deep changes. | Lecture + Q&A; Facilitated discussion; Listening to audio recordings; Viewing videos.