This course will follow the tension between dictatorial governments and attempts at social and political reform in late nineteenth-century Europe. Actual historical events, people, and movements will be woven together in an analysis of the monumental changes that occurred in Russia and Europe during the years before the Revolution of 1917. We will examine the foundations of socialism, anarchism, communism, populism, terrorism, and nationalist movements, which altered the course of history for three nations. Historical events will be supplemented with music, art, and literature of that period. These events planted the seeds of the twentieth century and still reverberate today. Jill Lepore, in her book "These Truths," wrote, “To study the past is to unlock the prison of the present.” Perhaps history might help us to know who we are, and how we became who we are. • Lecture (plus questions); Facilitated discussion; Viewing videos.